American Indian Art

Now Seeking Consignments
for our
September 23rd American Indian and Western Art Auction -
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Results:
April 4, 2016 American Indian and Western Art Auction

Upcoming:
May 12 - 23, 2016 Timed Online American Indian and Western Art Auction

As a leader in the field of American Indian Art, Cowan's has sold over $21 million of Native objects. Auctions are held twice a year focusing on North American cultural and ethnographic material. Photography of the American Indian and works of art portraying a romantic West by artists such as Henry Farny, Charles Russell, and Joseph Sharp, create a well-rounded auction that attracts aggressive bidding by American Indian and Western art collectors.

Department Director

Danica M. Farnand
Specialist

Contact Information
Contact Danica at 513.871.1670 (ext. 215) or email indianart@cowans.com

Danica graduated from John Carroll University with a BA in Art History and continued on to earn her MA in Anthropology at the University of Cincinnati. After 12 years at Cowan's, she has developed the American Indian Art division, with two major auctions a year and sales totaling over $20 million since the department's inception.

Susan Labry Meyn
Susan is Cowan's consulting ethnologist. Author of Farny Paints the Far West and co-author of Rookwood and the American Indian, she holds a PhD in American Indian History and Anthropology.

***Press Release***

Major Collections Drive Interest and Strong Bidding in Cowan's September 25th American Indian and Western Art Auction

 CINCINNATI, Ohio – High interest from bidders demonstrated that exceptional collections were brought to market in Cowan's September 25th American Indian and Western Art Auction. The day was a success with sales totals reaching $911,000, an 87[%] sell-through rate and a lot average of $2,300.

 Pre-auction estimates were trounced all day at the auction. A large crowd on the floor coupled with active phone bidding throughout the entirety of the sale made for a veritable feeding frenzy for many of the lots. The highest selling lot in the auction was anExtraordinary Cheyenne Beaded Hide Tobacco Bag from the Glen-Isle Resort in Bailey, Colorado. After nearly five minutes of back and forth bidding between the floor and the phones, the bag eventually sold to a phone bidder for $72,000 over its $8,000/10,000 estimate.

 "The selection of items in this sale, as deep in quality as in variety, demonstrated that the market for American Indian art remains highly competitive at the upper levels," notes Danica Farnand, Director, American Indian Art. "The collections from Minnesota, the Hopewell Museum and then Glen Isle Resort lead the way throughout the auction, with over 30[%] of items selling for above the high estimate. I was thrilled with the results of the sale, and look forward to the next one!"

 The selection of items also included fresh-to-the-market Sioux, Northern Plains and Kiowa material. A Sioux Beaded Unborn Fawn Bag sold for $30,000 – thirty times its pre-auction estimate. A Northern Plains Beaded and Quilled Buffalo Hide Bowcase and Quiver with Bow and Arrows brought $27,600, and a Kiowa Beaded Hide Strike-a-Light Bag realized $12,000.

 Textiles played a noteworthy role in the auction. One of the highlights was a Sandpainting weaving by Manuelito (Navajo, 1893-1987). The weaving dates to about 1935 to 1940 and depicts, among others, Talking God and Black Calling God. Manuelito was the niece of Hosteen Klah, a Navajo medicine man and weaver, who encouraged her to weave sandpaintings and taught her the correct imagery. This example was de-accessioned from the Hopewell Museum in Hopewell, N.J., having previously been donated to that institution by Dr. David Blackwell Hill (1887-1979), who collected American Indian art long before it became fashionable. The weaving sold for $27,060. Additional highlights in the textiles portion of the auction included a Navajo Two Grey Hills Weaving that sold for $16,800 and a Navajo Third Phase Woman's Chief Blanket realized $15,600.

 Important tomahawks also hit the auction block in the September 25th sale. A Plains Pipe Tomahawk estimated to bring between $6,000/8,000 sold for $11,685, a Sioux Pipe Tomahawk realized $11,400, and a Western Plains Pipe Tomahawk from the Glen Isle Resort quadrupled its estimate of $2,000/4,000 and realized $9,600.

 Pottery and basketry exceeded expectations in the auction, generating strong interest from Internet and phone bidders. A frenzy of bidding surrounded a lot of California Mission Baskets depicting Reptiles and Insects. De-accessioned from the Hopewell Museum, the pair of baskets brought $9,000. An Apache Figural Basketry Olla realized $9,225, an Acoma Pottery Olla sold for $8,400, a Nampeyo of Hano Attributed Polychome  Polacca Pottery Bowl realized $5,400, and a Californian Open-weave Basket sold for $4,500.

 Beadwork was among the higher selling lots of the day in the sale. A Sioux Beaded and Quilled Hide Cradle Collected by Medal of Honor Recipient James M. Burns sold for $18,000. James Madison Burns enlisted in the West Virginia infantry in 1861. On May 15, 1864, at the Battle of New Market, Virginia while under heavy fire from the enemy he voluntarily assisted a wounded comrade from the field of battle, earning him the Congressional Medal of Honor. A Cheyenne Beaded Hide Tobacco Bag from the Collection of Monroe Killy of Minnesota sold for $6,000, and a Plains Beaded and Quilled Buffalo Hide Society Bag realized $5,400.

 The diversity of the auction continued with artwork and photography. A painting by John Nieto, titled "War Dance," sold for $9,000, a Karl Bodmer Hand-Colored Aquatint, titled "Bison Dance of the Mandan Indians in front of their medicine lodge in Mih-Tutta-Hankush," realized $6,600, an Oil on Canvas by Lajos Markos sold for $6,000, and a Silver Gelatin Photograph by Roland Reed, titled "Up the Cutback," sold for $2,640.

 The market for American Indian art remains highly competitive at the upper levels. Cowan's is now seeking exceptional consignments for our 2016 American Indian and Western Art Auctions. For more information, phone Cowan's Auctions at (513) 871-1670 or visit Cowans.com.

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Iroquois Pincushion Whimsies Property of a Midwestern Museum
Lot # 117 - Iroquois Pincushion Whimsies Property of a Midwestern Museum
lot of 8; includes three heart forms, lengths 5.5 in. to 3.5 in.; PLUS four spade forms, lengths 8 in. to 4 in.; AND one flower form, length 5 in.
ca 1900
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Great Lakes Pipe Tomahawk From a Minnesota Collection
Lot # 384 - Great Lakes Pipe Tomahawk From a Minnesota Collection
cast head with hooked blade and tulip-shaped bowl; beveled handle with file branding and 85 brass tacks; pierced for attachment, length 17 in., width of blade 2.75 in.
ca 1900 
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Tlingit Basket
Lot # 18 - Tlingit Basket
large, finely woven example with decorations of vertically stacked hourglasses and diamonds connected by a horizontal band, height 8.25 in. x diameter 11 in.
early 20th century
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Navajo Turquoise and Silver Rings From Asa Glascock Trading Post, Gallup, New Mexico
Lot # 169 - Navajo Turquoise and Silver Rings From Asa Glascock Trading Post, Gallup, New Mexico
lot of 8, each handmade with its own personality and all but two with impressive pieces of turquoise.  One with a bezel featuring "prongs" that clasp the stone, size 7.75; PLUS another with the stone carved like an arrow-head, size 7.5 in.; PLUS another with large pear-shaped stone, size 7.75; PLUS another with a square stone with rough matrix, size 9.25; PLUS another with a brilliant stone surrounded by dots of silver, size 9; PLUS another with a mellow turquoise stone surrounded by scallops and a rope twist, size 75; PLUS another with oval petrified agate, size 5; AND last with an oval coral stone, size 8.
mid-20th century
   
Asa Glascock Trading Post

Asa Glascock (1898-1965), a native of Ralls County, Missouri, owned and operated a successful trading post located on North Third Street in Gallup, New Mexico from 1922 to 1957.  He and his wife also managed a post in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, for several years during the mid-1950s. 

Prior to becoming a trader, Glascock volunteered for the sheriff, serving as a member of the Gallup town posse when necessary and worked for the trans-continental railway.  During his time with the rail, which ran through the middle of town, Glascock severely injured his right hand.  This prompted his career change and became a trader who spoke fluent Navajo.

Asa’s wife, Margaret Smith Glascock (1924-2002), assisted him with the day-to-day activities typical of any thriving store—ordering supplies, showing merchandise, taking jewelry for pawn, operating the cash register, and keeping financial records.   The post sold Navajo blankets, Pendleton blankets, pawn jewelry, glass beads, groceries, and household goods similar to those found in today’s small hardware stores.  One original item however, surpassed all others: the beaded leather belts.  The Glascocks sold the profitable belts to the National Park Service, as well as to dealers across the country.  

The post had a long counter off to the side, where Czechoslovakian glass beads were sold.  The Zuni purchased the colorful beads by the “whiskey shot glass” and hurried home to loom-bead vibrant strips in the requisite length.  When finished, the beaders returned the strips to the post where Margaret, using her Singer, stitched the strips to commercially made leather belts.  Her sons often helped her with the final phase of lacing white plastic around the edges.  The belt orders dwindled when the Japanese began imitating the belts. 

Glascock sold his post in 1957 and the family returned to a farm in Missouri where they, like the Navajo, kept a herd of sheep.  (David Williamson to Meyn, February 16, 2015, and Mary Tate Engels, ed.,Tales from Wide Ruins, 1996: 192.)

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Navajo Woven Garters and Sash
Lot # 81 - Navajo Woven Garters and Sash
lot of 3, hand-woven in colors of red, green, and cream, total lengths of garters 33 in.; length of sash 49 in.
ca 1930s
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Plateau Painted Parfleche Envelope
Lot # 36 - Plateau Painted Parfleche Envelope
With blue, green, orange, and red triangular designs on panels; three hide thong ties, length 27 in. x width 13.25 in.
late 19th century
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Ute Beaded Hide Mirror Bag
Lot # 98 - Ute Beaded Hide Mirror Bag
sinew-sewn and beaded using colors of red white-heart, white, pea green, light blue, dark blue, and cobalt; triangular shaped pouch terminates with triangular beaded tabs and fringe, length 13.5 in. x width 1.5 in.
fourth quarter 19th century
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Northern Plains Beaded Hide Moccasins from the Collections of William H. Jensen and Monroe Killy (1910 - 2010)
Lot # - Northern Plains Beaded Hide Moccasins from the Collections of William H. Jensen and Monroe Killy (1910 - 2010)
lot of 2, thread and sinew-sewn, includes a pair with blue, pumpkin, white, and dark blue beadwork on vamps, length 11 in.; AND another pair with checkerboard design executed in pea green, dark blue, red white-heart, and white; cuffs edged with patterned cotton, length 11 in.
late 19th century

Monroe P. Killy (1910-2010) was a photographer, film maker, and collector of ethnographic material.  His passion started as a young teenager, when he built a complete Indian encampment in the backyard of his father’s photography studio. Killy dedicated his life to learning and understanding North American Native culture. As a founder of the Minnesota Archeological Society, he was considered one of the most influential collectors in Minnesota. Killy’s collection was developed from direct purchases from the original owners or artists.  Today, his photographs, films, and portions of his collection are housed at the Minnesota Historical Society, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, and the Science Museum of Minnesota. (Accession Numbers: AV1993.105.30AV1993.105.37AV1993.105.29).


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Roland Reed (American, 1864-1934) Platinum Photograph, <i>Ca-Ca-She, Flathead Chief</i>
Lot # 173 - Roland Reed (American, 1864-1934) Platinum Photograph, Ca-Ca-She, Flathead Chief
Ca-Ca-She, Flathead Chief
signed and dated in negative lower left; penciled over the print
12.75 x 9 in.
1911
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Hopi and Santa Clara Bowls
Lot # 440 - Hopi and Santa Clara Bowls
lot of 2, including a Hopi bowl with geometrics around shoulder, height 3 in. x diameter 7 in.; AND a Santa Clara bowl painted with wave-like decorations, height 2.25 in. x diameter 3.25 in.
second quarter 20th century
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Collection of Hopi Rattles
Lot # 171 - Collection of Hopi Rattles
lot of 10, including ones formed like flowers, others with various katsina faces, sizes range from 6 in. to 14 in.
20th century
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Lakota Painted Muslin Panel
Lot # 308 - Lakota Painted Muslin Panel
muslin panel painted in colors of black, green, blue, yellow, pink, and orange; seven warriors on horseback and four men on foot are depicted in battle, length 77 in. x 32 in.
late 19th century

Panel is accompanied with a copy of a letter of provenance dated 1981, (portion): 
... First of all, my Aunt Jean MacRoy -the oldest sister of your great-great grandfather- taught in the Indian school territory of -I believe- the Dakotas and Oklahoma, where she gathered (or was given) these items:...
 
1) The scenes painted on unbleached muslin, and which were done by an old squaw, reportedly over 100 years old, of the war between the Blackfoot and Sioux tribes -- (here again, it's hearsay and could be incorrect). However, the paintings are authentic so far as Indian ancient craft is concerned -- coloring came from roots, etc...
Lakota paintings on panels of muslin or canvas cloth developed in the 1880s, when Indian families were moved from their traditional tipis into log cabins. The mud and moss chinking between the logs quickly dried out, when chunks might fall out of position, creating drafts. To combat this problem, panels of cloth were often tacked up around the interior. As these were similar in both purpose and appearance to the earlier, leather linings used in tipis, the cloth cabin liners were often painted in similar fashion, with depictions of the owner's battle exploits.

These attractive cabin liners quickly found an economic market as "Indian curios." When that happened, by the early-1890s, various Indian artists began to paint panels of cloth specifically for sale to tourists, or government officials. This painting is an example of that progression. If it had been created for home use as a cabin liner, there would be tack or nail holes around the perimeter. Lacking these, we recognize an early example of Lakota, male "commercial ingenuity." Prevented from supporting his family by hunting, this husband and father had turned his hand to another means of earning a small income. 

This artist was either an Oglala from Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota, or a Sicangu (Brule), from Rosebud Reservation. In the quarter century, 1850-1875, during which the events depicted had occurred, one of the primary enemy tribes opposed to Oglala & Sicangu expansion was the Pawnee, located south of Lakota territory in present Nebraska . All four of the pedestrian enemies depicted are Pawnee, recognizable from their plucked hairstyle, with only one or two, narrow scalplocks; and especially, black-dyed moccasins with high ankle flaps. These are worn by the two enemy figures at top, right and center. Both Pawnee also appear to be naked, a common battle choice  (see, for example, Dodge, 1882: 457). The other, two Pawnee are shown as bare-footed, wearing only cloth shirts. 
A fascinating feature of this painting is the clear intention to depict sound: the lines emanating from the mouths of two of the Pawnee are meant to show that they were either singing protective war songs, or more probably hurling insults at the Lakota, as they were ridden down. 

During a stand-off encounter with Lakota in 1867, Col. Richard I. Dodge was supported by a Pawnee hunting companion. The colonel and his partner had superior firearms and a strong position, so after four hours of stratagems and aborted attacks, a Lakota war party of fifty men gave up and left them unmolested.

During all the charges the Pawnee had evinced the greatest eagerness for fight...Answering yell for yell, he heaped upon them all the opprobrious epithets he could think of in English, Spanish, Sioux and Pawnee, When they wheeled and went off the last time, he turned to me with the most intense disgust and contempt, and said emphatically, "Dam coward Sioux!" (Dodge, 1882:458). 

This Lakota artist has documented, in graphic form, Pawnee battle insults similar to those described by Col. Dodge.

Three types of distinctively-decorated battle lances, indicative of membership in various warrior societies, are illustrated on this panel. The best, visual reference that assists in distinguishing these is Bad Heart Bull, 1967: 104-116.  Crooked lances, with the upper end bent like a shepherd's crook, the shaft wrapped with strips of dark otterskin and hung at intervals with golden eagle feathers, were used as insignia by three of the Lakota warrior societies: the Wiciska (Horned White Headdresses); the Ihoka (or Iroka, meaning Badger); and the Sotka Yuha. The latter name "is said to imply a smooth, unadorned stick; hence, they have empty [bare] lances, referring to the custom of investing certain members with plain lances to which they may tie feathers if coups are counted" (Wissler, 1912: 33).

Three of these "straight lances" are depicted on the panel, showing a progression of accomplishment. A "bare lance," definitive for the Sotka Yuha, is carried by the rider at lower right. The rider in the top row, second from left, on a blue roan painted with a red muzzle and red circles on the shoulders and hips, carries a similar lance now wrapped with otterskin and hung with single eagle feathers symbolizing war deeds. The same man on a later occasion, on the same horse and displaying the same headdress and  shield, is shown in the top row, far right. His lance is now hung with additional eagle feathers to document further accomplishments. This man was probably the artist, and he was a lance bearer of the Sotka Yuha Warrior Society. The crooked lances depicted were probably also Sotka Yuha regalia, carried by war partners of the same organization (compare Bad Heart Bull, 1967: 108). It is likely these men were brothers or cousins of the artist.
 
Remarkably, two horse masks, rare examples of Plains Indian battle accoutrement, are also depicted on this muslin panel. At bottom left, a brindle buckskin gelding is protected with an intimidating mask that represents an Underworld Bull, a nightmare creature like a huge buffalo described in ancient myths, which brought earthquake and crushing death (see Cowdrey, Martin & Martin, 2006: 12-16, &  especially, Fig. 2.14a). Note the brown over-painting of the buckskin coat which nicely represents the rare, brindle markings. In the earthquake context of the mask, the unusual coat markings of the horse, which the artist has taken such trouble to convey, might well be intended to invoke a blinding duststorm.

A second, smaller mask distinguishes the black gelding following the buckskin. The wrapped forelock of the rider indicates he is a man who had received a protective vision from the God of Thunder, Lakota avatar of War. The wrapped forelock of the horse makes this connection explicit. The dark steed is painted with red lightning strikes down the legs, and a white rump speckled with black dots that represent a storm of hail. As the horse charges, it symbolizes an engulfing thunderstorm, the hooves striking as bolts of electricity and trampling the enemy like a deluge of hail stones. A third style of lance, with a checkered banner attached along the shaft, consisting of black and white feathers, belongs to the rider of the black horse. This is an insignia of the Cante T'inza (Strong Heart) Warrior Society (Bad Heart Bull, 1967: 104).

The two, horse heads at lower right are "shorthand" symbols for Pawnee animals captured during the action depicted.


Mike Cowdrey
San Luis Obispo, California
12 January 2014


Bibliography

Bad Heart Bull, Amos (Helen H. Blish, ed.)
    1967    A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Cowdrey, Mike, and Ned Martin & Jody Martin
    2006    American Indian Horse Masks. Nicasio, CA: Hawk Hill Press.

Dodge, Col. Richard Irving
    1882    Our Wild Indians: Thirty-three Years' Personal Experience Among the Red Men of the
                Great West
. Hartford, CN: A.D. Worthington & Co.

Wissler, Clark
    1912    "Societies and Ceremonial Associations in the Oglala Division of the Teton Dakota."
                Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 11.

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Plains Bone Hairpipe Breastplate
Lot # 244 - Plains Bone Hairpipe Breastplate
Constructed with four strips of harness leather holding two rows of hairpipes strung with hide thongs; thongs coated with red and blue pigment; rows of brass beads separate panels, total length 20.5 in.
fourth quarter 19th century
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Joe H. Quintana (Cochiti, 1915-1991) Silver Headband
Lot # 202 - Joe H. Quintana (Cochiti, 1915-1991) Silver Headband
engraved with simple diagonal pattern, length 12.75 in.  Signed JHQ. 
ca 1970s

Joe H. Quintana (ca 1915-1991) received many outstanding awards both for his silversmithing skills and artistic designs. His career is described in Gregory Schaaf's 2003 book American Indian Jewelry I on page 267.  In 2005 Museum of New Mexico Press published Joe H. Quintana, Master in Metal: Selections from the Irma Bailey Collection, a catalogue that accompanied an exhibit of his jewelry.
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Eanger Irving Couse (American, 1866-1936)
Lot # 196 - Eanger Irving Couse (American, 1866-1936)
Eanger Irving Couse is best known for his depictions of a peaceful Indian domestic life; his paintings helped elevate public opinion about Indians. Today, we know that Couse mixed fact with fiction in his romanticized compositions. For this oil painting Couse abandoned his tranquil scenes and painted the tragic massacre of Dr. Marcus Whitman’s family by Cayuse Indians on November 29, 1847 in Oregon. In his artwork Couse captures the drama and essence of the brutal event while retaining an outsider’s stance — merely observing the bloody scene.

Couse trained as an academic painter at the Art Institute of Chicago, the National Academy of Design, Académie Julian, and Ecole des Beaux Arts. Academic painting regards historical scenes as the most significant type of subject matter. Couse, aware of this mentality, selected the Whitman Massacre for his subject matter; the horrific event is commonly referred to as the Walla Walla Massacre.

Perhaps Couse’s wife, Virginia Walker ,who grew up in Washington near the Oregon border, influenced her husband’s decision to paint the massacre. After their marriage in 1889 in France, the couple moved to Klikitat County, WA, where they lived for a year with her parents. During that time the artist set up his studio there. The Walker family was arguably aware of the 1847 tragedy because they lived only a few hours from the site. Whitman, a Protestant missionary, had settled along the Walla Walla River in 1836 and hoped to Christianize the Indians, but they were not interested. Therefore Whitman directed his efforts toward the incoming settlers making their way west along the nearby Oregon Trail.

The Indians knew that the white settlers and the federal government planned to establish the Oregon Territories and eventually force the Cayuse Indians and other tribes onto a reservation. Hence the Cayuse were highly suspicious and distraught — not only because they might lose their tribal lands, but also because they had suffered greatly during a widespread measles epidemic that seriously affected only Indians. As a result, Whitman, his wife and thirteen other settlers were murdered and several dozen settlers were taken hostage on that fateful day.

Couse used live models to capture the dread and uncertainty of the historic event. The scene depicts three, small, white settlers in the foreground and the barely discernable departing Cayuse Indians in the upper left corner. Here, his usual tight and controlled brushwork is discarded for loose sweeps that highlight the emotion, confusion, and sense of melancholy in the scene as the landscape overwhelms the shrunken figures. In fact, many of his earlier paintings, made from the 1880s to early 1900s, bear a striking resemblance to the loose brushwork of the French Barbizon School of painting, such as Hopi Snake Dance, dated 1903. A dark and foreboding color palette reiterates this feeling of mournfulness, which is further mimicked by a woman sorrowfully cradling a figure in her arms. Another painting by Couse, titled The Captive dating from the late 19th century, also depicts the Whitman Massacre.

Exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1892, this painting, most recently sold at auction in 1992, is more reminiscent of the rest of his oeuvre with its tight handling of brushwork, figures that fill the field of the painting, and attention to detail. Whitman Massacre is reproduced as the frontispiece in Nicholas Woloshuk’s catalogue raisonne, titled E. Irving Couse 1866-1936. Santa Fe, NM: Santa Fe Village Art Museum, 1976, limited ed.

Information obtained at: HistoryLink.org, “Cayuse attack mission in what becomes known as the Whitman Massacre on November 29, 1847,” http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=5192 (accessed July 28, 2010). Legends of America, “Whitman Massacre National Historic Site,” http://www.legendsofamerica.com/wa-whitmanmassacre.html (accessed July 28, 2010). PBS.org, “New Perspectives on the West,” http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/whitman.htm (accessed July 28, 2010).
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Navajo Pictorial Weaving
Lot # 289 - Navajo Pictorial Weaving
hand-spun wool, thickly woven with an image of Monument Valley, 31 x 30.5 in.
second quarter 20th century
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Mexican Turquoise and Coral Necklace
Lot # 156 - Mexican Turquoise and Coral Necklace
created in the style of a Navajo necklace, but marked Hecho en Mexico.  Necklace with five turquoises and three coral stones, length 18.5 in.
ca 1970
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Navajo Silver and Turquoise Necklacs and BoloJewelry
Lot # 178 - Navajo Silver and Turquoise Necklacs and BoloJewelry
lot of 5.  Includes a Navajo necklace with five turquoise drops and a single squash blossom pendant at hook, length 16.5 in.; PLUS a Navajo necklace with eight inlaid silver beads and a heavy cast silver naja with a single turquoise, length 26 in.; PLUS a Navajo necklace of small silver beads with an arrowhead set with a single green turquoise, length 18 in.; PLUS a bolo with two nugget turquoises set on silver bolo that is ornamented with a leaf and a flower, height 2.5 in.; AND a large stamped silver butterfly set with a single turquoise, length 3.25 in.
fourth quarter 20th century 
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Navajo Banded Double Saddle Blanket
Lot # 146 - Navajo Banded Double Saddle Blanket
woven using colors of orange, cream, pink, blue, green, and brown, 59.5 x 30 in.
mid-20th century
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